Suggestion for the protection procedure.

Work presented in the Congress of Engineering 2014

I Work Number 242 Index:

1-It Tells the history of the SPCR (protection systems against beams).

1.1. History of the knowledge of the electricity.

1.2. Origin of the procedure on protection against beams.

1.3. Problematics of the current regulation.

2-That bear in mind for the production of new regulations of protection against beams.

2.1. Definition of the zones of risk.

2.2. Protection according to the zones of risk.

3-Bibliography

 

 

1-Tells the history of the SPCR (protection systems against beams).

 

 

1.1.  History of the knowledge of the electricity

 

The human knowledge of the electricity evolved from the simple perception of the phenomenon, to his scientific treatment. There registered along the Age Antigua And a half other isolated observations or simple speculations, archaeological objects of debatable interpretation, as the Battery of Baghdad, an object found in Iraq and dated about 250 B.C., that is alike a cell electrochemistry. These speculations and fragmentary records are the almost exclusive and primary treatment that exists from the Antiquity up to the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century, with the notable exception of the use of the magnetism for the compass

The first contributions that can be understood as approximations to the knowledge of the electrical phenomenon and they were realized by investigators as William Gilbert, (1544-1603). He was one of the first ones in realizing experiments with static electricity and magnetism, and defined as " electrical force " to the phenomenon of attraction that was taking place on having rubbed certain substances. It classified in addition the materials as conductive and insulating and designed the first electroscope. For your part, Pieter van Musschenbroek, 1692-1761, realized several experiments on the electricity

Benjamin Franklin, discovered the electrical currents produced by the clouds, and across the publications in his annual almanacs, with Poor Richards's name of the year 1753, defined the way of being protected from the electrical unloads during the storms, but I am never called them lightningrod. The transcription of the above mentioned article is the following one: Since assuring his House of the LIGHTNING. The Method: " To provide a small bar of iron of three or four feet in the humid land and other one, it can be six or eight feet on the highest part of the building and joined.

At the end of the bar of the building, to hold approximately a foot of cable of bronze, of the size of a needle to weave, sharpened to a top; the bar can be assured to the house by staples. If the house or the building are long, bars can be placed in the ends and join them. A housing like that protected will not be damaged by the lightning, it is is attracted by the cables of bronze finished in top, happening for the metal to the land. The ships also, they can be protected having a sharp bar on the top of his masts, with a cable that reaches below, about one of the covers, in the water ".

Se da una tabla resumen de científicos y sus aportes posteriores.

 

 

Años

Nombres de los Científicos

Trabajos y descubrimientos

1777

Charles-A. de Coulomb

fuerza entre dos cargas

1780

Luigi Galvani

el impulso nervioso

1800

Alessandro Volta

la pila de Volta

1807

 Humphry Davy

la electrólisis

1808

 Humphry Davy

el arco eléctrico

1819

Hans Christian Ørsted

el electromagnetismo

1821

Thomas Johann Seebeck

la termoelectricidad

1822

André-Marie Ampère

el solenoide

1825

William Sturgeon

el electroimán

1832

William Sturgeon

el conmutador

1836

William Sturgeon

el galvanómetro

1827

Georg Simon Ohm

la ley de Ohm

1830

Joseph Henry

inducción electromagnética

1831

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss

Teorema de Gauss de la electrostática

1831

Michael Faraday

inducción

1831

Michael Faraday

generador

1832

Michael Faraday

leyes y jaula de Faraday

1834

Heinrich Friedrich Lenz

ley de Lenz

1834

Jean Peltier

efecto Peltier

1840

Jean Peltier

inducción electrostática

1834

Samuel Morse

telégrafo

1879

 Ernst Werner. von Siemens

Locomotora eléctrica

1843

Charles Wheatstone

puente de Wheatstone

1843

James Prescott Joule

relaciones entre electricidad, calor y trabajo

1845

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff

leyes de Kirchhoff

1858

William Thomson

Cable flexibles

1851

Heinrich Daniel Ruhmkorff

la bobina de Ruhmkorff genera chispas de alto voltaje

1851

Léon Foucault

corrientes de Foucault

1870

Zénobe-Théophile Gramme

la primera dinamo

1872

Johann Wilhelm Hittorf

el primer tubo de rayos catódicos

1875

James Clerk Maxwell

las cuatro ecuaciones de Maxwell

1876

Alexander Graham Bell

el teléfono

1879

Thomas Alva Edison

desarrollo de la lámpara incandescente

1882

John Hopkinson

el sistema trifásico

1887

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz

demostración de las ecuaciones de Maxwell y la teoría electromagnética de la luz

1886

George Westinghouse

el suministro de corriente alterna

1891

Nikola Tesla

desarrollo de máquinas eléctricas, la bobina de Tesla

1893

Nikola Tesla

El radiotransmisor

1892

 Charles Proteus Steinmetz

la histéresis magnética

1895

 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

los rayos X

1894

Michael Idvorsky Pupin

la bobina de Pupin

1896

Michael Idvorsky Pupin

las imágenes de rayos X

1897

Joseph John Thomson

los rayos catódicos

1895

Hermanos Lumière

el inicio del cine

1899

Guglielmo Marconi

la telegrafía inalámbrica

1901

Peter Cooper Hewitt

la lámpara de vapor de mercurio

1902

Gottlob Honold

el magneto de alta tensión, la bujía

1913

Gottlob Honold

los faros parabólicos

1900

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz

Las transformaciones de Lorentz

1902

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz

el efecto Zeeman

1905

Albert Einstein

El efecto fotoeléctrico

1909

Robert Andrews Millikan

El experimento de Millikan

1911

 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

Superconductividad

1923

Vladimir Zworykin

La televisión

1935

Edwin Howard Armstrong

Frecuencia modulada

1935

Robert Watson-Watt

El radar

Mitad del siglo XX

Transistor, Electrónica digital y Superconductividad

Centrales nucleares

Generación de Electricidad, Combustibles y Fuentes Renovables

Ordenadores

Electrificación de los ferrocarriles

Robótica

Laser

Electro Medicina

Telecomunicaciones

Internet


1.1.  Origin of the procedure on protection against beams.

The first norm on protection of unloads was " British Lightning Code " that dates back of beginning of the 20th century. In a concordant way other nations generated equivalent procedure according to this base that he was translating and adapting for the need of every country, supporting the technical base demonstrated by Benjamin Franklin in his almanac of the Poor Richards, of the year 1753. In case of USA, there was created the " National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), to organize and to regulate the market of the protection against unloads and of related products. In 1904 there appears the first specification of this organization, titled: " Specification for Protection of Buildings Against Lightning " (NFPA-78). In 1995 the technical specification happens to be a NFPA-780. Nowadays with any more than 26 reviews, this norm IS NOT OF OBLIGED FULFILLMENT.

 

1.2.  Problematics of the current regulation

In the current world the atmospheric unloads generate incalculable and unimaginable hurts in times of Franklin, since in that epoch there did not exist big metallic structures and much less the whole wired up one and electrical current devices. The technological current development demands a regulation precise and adapted to the new existing situations, for ej: that the fall of a beam generates a very high electromagnetic induction in many meters around, which turns it harmful even if it falls down in a "lightningrod" because it can (and of fact it happens repeatedly) to render useless electronic and electrical equipments, and alive beings put in risk. FULFILLMENT.

 

One of the contradictions between regulations, in the particular case of Argentine, is given between the NAG 418 (imposed by ENARGAS and applied by all the operators of Natural compressed gas (GNC)) and the IRAM N ° 2418, giving very different guidelines with regard to the use of the lightningrods and in clear opposition to the regulation of Security and Labor Hygiene.

 

 

2-That bear in mind for the production of new regulations of protection against beams.

 

 To effect of realizing an offer for the New Regulations of Protection Against the Atmospheric Unloads, it is necessary to restate the use of the word "lightningrod", that evidently for the specified in many current procedure and originally the demonstrated for Benjamin Franklin, in his almanacs, his definition is: Artifice consisted of one or more rods of iron finished in top and linked to each other and with the humid land, or with the water, by means of metallic drivers, who places on the buildings or the noses to preserve them from the effects of the electricity of the clouds. Though his definition is decorous, it is not a definition that one adapts to the reality since this type of protection generates more disadvantages that not to have it in many cases and is very demonstrated, since they neither guarantee a correct managing of the current to remove it to land they nor guarantee the place of the impact. Therefore when we think about the word "lightningrod" we have to of basing on the composition of the word: to stop, that it means to stop, and I border, recounted to the atmospheric unload. Since this way also define the zones that we want to protect on the basis of cataloguing them for the level of the irrigation that would mean that a beam or atmospheric unload falls down in the place.

2-1. Definition of the zones of risk.

We must have present for the definition of these zones: the type of activity, the persons' quantity, the environment, the heritage, concordant activities in the surroundings, the type of good, beside bearing in mind the historical values of the activity keraunica, to effect of reinforcing aspects of the facilities when he believes himself necessarily.

A - high Risk: when there are in game the life of the persons, the cardinal and cultural goods, the life of the animals, the industries and the means of production. The presence of the persons is permanent or in long periods of times, existence of cultural goods, presence of explosive atmospheres or incendiables, facilities of electronic equipments of essential services. (Homes, you make, hospitals, schools, buildings, stations of services, centers of calculations, restaurants, in summer season the camping, holiday camps, stadiums for the sport, etc.)

B-    Average risk: The capital values and cultural they are not very significant and the industrial processes and of production they are not of high risk, explosive atmospheres do not exist not incendiables. (Stations transformadoras, Factories of cement or quarries, Sheds of warehouses with metallic structures and not inflammable materials, industrial processes of very low employment of personnel and machineries, etc.)

C-    Low risk: Where there is very low the possibility of the presence of persons, of animals, open of terrain places and factories or processes who do not affect the capital (Houses or buildings where it should remain with good time, without risk of storms, Hydroelectric Generators, wells of water extraction, open of terrain field zones or, etc.)

2.2.            Protection according to the zones of risk.

A-    High risk: When the zone is defined hereby we must provide the maximum safety and the protection system must be realized under the following premise: the beams must not be attracted on the other hand they were considered to be the following aspects, bearing in mind which are the parts that there can fall an atmospheric unload indexed to the element that we want to protect:

A-1. On the element to protecting. The principal aspect to realize a protection against the fall of the beam on the element to protecting, is to avoid the fall of the beam, using the technologies of " des ionization ", or inhibition of the beam. It is not necessary to to him to install in this case any system that bases his functioning on the beginning of ionization of the air: lightningrod type Franklin, with starting devices, with radioactive elements, multitops or guard's threads.

A-2. Environment of the element to protecting. The protection would be given by the creation of a ring equipotencial in the surroundings of the element to protect, this ring will be joined also to the descent of the central protector, the impedance of the system is acceptable in minor values to 5 ohm, is suggested to come to a minor value to 1 ohm. There is recommended that the lines of supply, telephony and TV for cable should be protected by systems of unloads connected to the ring equipotencial. All the elements that they find in the exterior that they are capable of leading electricity, metallic stairs, lampposts, bridges, gratings etc., they must connect to the ring equipotencial.

A-3. On the services that they enter to the element to protect. When the beam strikes on the services that enter to a structure, they generate sobretensiones. All the services have to be protected against these sobretensiones, so much those of water, gas, electric power, telephone, information and television. The protections will be of the type: against the sobretensiones or unloaders of sparks

A-4. Near the services that they enter to the element to protect. The effect of the beams that fall down near the services they will meet eliminated or attenuated using a correct accomplishment of the previous point.

B-    Protection for zone of average Risk: This zone will be sufficient with a good system of earthing and ring equipotencial, the services connected to protections of sobretensión, unloaders of sparks and gaseous unloaders and the metallic parts connected to the earthing.

C-    Protections for zones of low Risk: In these zones the persons' revenue must be avoided in days by risks of storms and rains by probabilities of atmospheric unloads. One was installing a good system of land and one to traedor of beam of the type ionizante and the model who more adapts already is atraedores franklin, multitops or guards' rings, they must not establish of the radioactive type since these systems are prohibited worldwide.

Provided that this type of facilities complement the functioning of the previous ones, fundamentally those of the type " Zone of high risk ", it is suggested that could be subsidized, to effect of facilitating and inducing his installation.

Funcionamiento de un a traedor tipo Franklin para zonas de riesgo Bajo:

One to traedor is an instrument which aim is to attract a beam ionizing the air to excite, to call and to lead the unload towards land. The first model knows himself as " lightningrod Franklin ", in honoring to his inventor.

In 1749 Benjamin Franklin I initiate his experiments on the electricity; it defended the hypothesis of that the storms are an electrical phenomenon and he proposed an effective method to demonstrate it. In 1749 he invented to traedor in America and probably independently, also Prokop Divis was invented po in Europe in 1754.

In 1753 public Franklin an article in his famous almanac (Poor Richard's Almanack), where it proposed to use in the roofs rods of steel to attract the beams and to lead them to land and that way to be more protected from the beams. His theory practised in England and France before even of that it realized his famous I experiment with a comet in 1752. Hereby I invent a system to traedor of beams and present the theory of the only fluids to explain both types of atmospheric electricity the positive one and the denial.

From this theory so called Lightningrods were born badly, because contrary to this name they were designed to urge and to attract the unload then to lead her to land. In 1753, Georg Wilhelm Richmann followed franklin's investigations, but in one of the tests it received an unload that I it fulminate. In the year 1919 Nicola Tesla defined correctly the functioning of Franklin's invention, refuted the theories and Franklin's technology.

From this theory they were born badly From this moment the industry grew and evolutions appeared as they it are the multipuntas, those of fattening, the guard's threads and up to the radioactive some that at present have stopped using for safety motives, but all evolve this one they have the same physical beginning of functioning: to ionize the air from an electrical field native generated in the soil by the storm, in order to urge and to catch the beams.

An installation of this nature consists of: An element captor: installed in the highest of the area where one is working. A conductive element to take the whole current to land, with the suitable dimensions, can be of material charge preferably or galvanized in warm. A squandering element in land or capture of land (javelin).

The facilities from these to traedores of beams consist of a metallic mast, of stainless steel, aluminium or iron with a compress captor, his forms are variable and different, with multitops or simple tops. The compress captor is joined to a capture of electrical land by means of a cable of conductive copper. The capture of land is constructed by metal pikes, or by means of meshes or conductive plates, which do functions of electrodes in the area.

At first the area of theoretical capture has the conical form departing from the vertex that is the top captora and the angle depends on the type of protection and from every manufacturer. The principal aim of these systems is of catching the unload and to take her to land therefore an identical installation must exist to the current of unload as for the dimensions of the top captora, cable of descent and puttings to lands.

To contemplate that the instruments, equipments of telecommunications, electro medicine, automation of processes and services, are sensitive to the electromagnetic disturbances and sudden variations of the current, the facilities of to traedores of beams generate electromagnetic pulses of great power when the unloads take place.

 

Bibliografía:

Normas IEC 62305 partes 1,2,3 y 4

Richard Feynman Volumen II de física: Electromagnetismo y Materia

Videos de la National Gheografic.

Angel Rodriguez Montes: Especialista en el tema Rayos Atmosfericos y Clima Espacial.